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Paediatrics Department

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The department has a vision to become a centre of excellence in paediatrics and child health. With this vision, we hope to become the leading centre for teaching, service and research in general paediatrics as well as paediatric subspecialties in Malaysia. In addition, we will provide service to children from the locality and the country of the highest standards and delivered with utmost empathy and compassion. The department is also involved in the Faculty of Medicine’s undergraduate teaching programme and we will ensure that the syllabus is of high quality, suitable and current so that it can be of utilitarian value and meet the expectations and needs of the public.

The department strives to continually improve the quality of its postgraduate programme to ensure that the paediatricians produced are able to meet the challenges required to upgrade child health in the country. In addition, postgraduate trainees are exposed to the various subspecialties to put them in good stead to pursue subspecialty training both locally and abroad.

The department is also committed to promoting knowledge in paediatrics and child health on a continual basis. Workshops and courses are held annually and are important CME activities for paediatricians and trainees around the country. In addition, visiting doctors and fellows are welcome for short training stints in the individual subspecialties.


The Department of Paediatrics, University of Malaya is one of the oldest tertiary paediatric centres in Malaysia. It is an important discipline as children make up approximately 40% of the country’s total population.

The Department of Paediatrics was established as a clinical department in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya in 1966. However, the department only began its services after the University Hospital was established in 1968.

Prof. Dr. Alan E. Dugdale

1967 – 1972

Prof. Dr. Maxwell J.Robinson 

1974 – 1977

Prof. Dr. Lam Khuan Leng

1977 – 1994

Prof. Dr. Lin Hai Peng

1994 – 2002

Prof. Dr. Asma Omar

2002 – 2005

Prof. Dr.  Wan Ariffin Abdullah

 2005 – 2007


Prof. Dr.  Fatimah Harun 

2007 – August 2009

Prof. Dr. Thong Meow Keong

Sept 2009 – June 2011

Prof. Dr.  Lee Way Seah

July 2011 – July 2016

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yazid Jalaludin

August  2016 – Present


Landmark Activities

1. The Women’s and Children’s health complex costing nearly RM200 million was officially opened and commissioned on the 11th January 2011 at 11.11am by the UMMC Director, Dato Prof Ikram Shah, assisted by Prof Thong Meow Keong (Head of Paediatrics) and Prof Dr Siti Zawiah (head of Obstetrics and Gynaecology). The historic moment were witnessed by other dignitaries and senior medical personnel. The transition from the old building to the new complex was done successfully in stages with minimal interruptions due to careful planning, dedication and cooperation from all staff members

2. Professor Dr Ikuya Nonaka, a renowned world expert in neuromuscular diseases from the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan was appointed the first Visiting Professor to the Department of Paediatrics UMMC from 2011-2013. This historic moment was planned in 2010 by Prof Thong as for the first time, an international expert in paediatric neurology was appointed to this esteemed position in the Department of Paediatrics UM.

3. The first Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by Department of Paediatrics was signed between the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) USA and University of Malaya. This historic effort initiated in 2010 by Prof Thong culminated in the signing of the MOU on the 21st November 2011. This will benefit closer collaborations between the 2 institutions on various research projects. Prof Muhammad Yazid was one of the academic staff members who was trained at CHOP.


Prof Madya Dr. Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin

Head of Department

Bil Salutation Name Email Phone
1 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin yazidj@ummc.edu.my -
2 Prof. Dato’ Dr. Christopher Boey Chiong Meng boeycm@ummc.edu.my & ccmboey@um.edu.my -
3 Prof. Dr. Hany Mohd Ariffin hany@ummc.edu.my & hany@um.edu.my -
4 Prof. Dr. Koh Mia Tuang kohmt@ummc.edu.my & kohmt@um.edu.my -
5 Prof. Dr. Lee Way Seah leews@ummc.edu.my & leews@um.edu.my -
6 Prof. Dr. Lucy Lum Chai See lumcs@ummc.edu.my & lumccs@um.edu.my -
7 Prof. Dr. Thong Meow Keong thongmk@ummc.edu.my & thongmk@um.edu.my -
8 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Anna Marie Nathan anna@ummc.edu.my -
9 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azanna bt Ahmad Kamar azanna@ummc.edu.my & azanna@um.edu.my -
10 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Choo Yao Mun ymchoo@ummc.edu.my & yaomun@um.edu.my -
11 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Fong Choong Yi fongcy@um.edu.my & cyfong@ummc.edu.my -
12 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gan Chin Seng Gancs72@um.edu.my & Csgan@ummc.edu.my -
13 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mary Joseph Marret mary@ummc.edu.my & marret@um.edu.my -
14 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ng Ruey Terng ng.ruey.terng@ummc.edu.my -
15 Dr. Azriyanti Anuar Zaini azriyanti@ummc.edu.my & azriaz@ um.edu.my -
16 Dr. Chong Lee Ai leeai@um.edu.my -
17 Dr. Norazah Zahari norazah@ummc.edu.my & norazahz@um.edu.my -
18 Dr. Revathi a/p Rajagopal rgrevathi@ummc.edu.my -
19 Dr. Subhashini a/p Jayanath subhashini@ummc.edu.my & subhashinij@um.edu.my -
20 Dr. Yap Tsiao Yi tyyap@ummc.edu.my -
21 Dr. Chuah Soo Lin chuahsl@ummc.edu.my -
22 Dr. Eg Kah Peng kah.peng@ummc.edu.my -
23 Dr. Foo Jen Chun jcfoo@ummc.edu.my -
24 Dr. Farah Khalid farah.khalid@ummc.edu.my -
25 Dr. Karmila bt Abu Bakar karmila@um.edu.my -
26 Dr. Li Limin li.limin@ummc.edu.my -
27 Dr. Lim Wei Kang wklim@um.edu.my & wklim@ummc.edu.my -
28 Dr. Nurshadia bt Samingan nurshadia@ummc.edu.my & nurshadia@um.edu.my -
29 Dr. Tae Sok Kun sokkun@ummc.edu.my -
30 Dr. Tay Chee Geap cgtay@ummc.edu.my & taycheegeap@um.edu.my -
30 Dr. Vida Jawin vida@ummc.edu.my -
Bil Salutation Name Email Phone
1 Ms. Barathy A/P Muthusamy Kaundan barathy_10@um.edu.my 03-79492732
2 Ms. Betty Sheila A/P Subramaniam ila25@um.edu.my 03-79496407
3 Ms. Emi Suraya Binti Hashim esue_dream@um.edu.my 03-79492065
4 Mr. Mohd Sharif Bin Idris mohdsharif@um.edu.my 03-79492732
5 Mr. Mohd Taufik Bin Ishak taufik_i@um.edu.my 03-79496346
6 Ms. Noraishah Binti Ab Rashid eshah_79@um.edu.my 03-79492732
4 Ms. Nur Mahirah Binti Mahmood nurmahirah@um.edu.my 03-79496407
7 Ms. Rosmini Binti Tahir @ Hj Mohd Tahir rosmini@um.edu.my 03-79496407
8 Mr. Shapawi Bin Ismail shapawi@um.edu.my 03-79496440
Academic Programme

Strage 1

  • Lectures and seminars
  • Clinical Days teaching

Strange 2

  • Lectures and seminars
  • Clinical Days teaching
  • Self-Directed Learning Project

Strange 3.1

  • 8 weeks clinical posting at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang
  • Lectures and Problem-based learning sessions

Strange 3.2

  • 8 weeks clinical posting at University of Malaya Medical Centre
  • Lectures and Problem-based learning sessions

The Department of Paediatrics, University of Malaya began conducting post-graduate teaching, leading to the degree of Master of Paediatrics in 1988. In 1998, the course was merged with that of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia to form a conjoint training programme with common examinations. This merger allowed standardization of teaching syllabi and assessment tools. This ensures that general paediatricians graduating from any of this three leading medical schools in Malaysia conform to a regulated standard.

The 4-year Master of Paediatrics programme consists of three stages:

  • Stage l (Year 1) includes training in basic clinical paediatrics, basic sciences and emergency paediatrics. Ample opportunities to develop procedural skills are available especially when on-call.
  • Stage ll (Year 2 & 3) involves structured rotation in the various disciplines to develop well-rounded knowledge in paediatrics and child health. Trainees usually embark on their research project at this stage.
  • Stage lll (Year 4) involves advanced training in paediatrics including the subspecialty of choice. Trainees are allowed short attachments in subspecialty units in other hospitals.

Submission of a thesis/research project report is required at this stage before being allowed to graduate.

Medical officers are allowed to apply for the Masters programme after serving 2 years of housemanship and one year of post-HO training. Candidates who fulfil the above criteria must pass the Malaysian Paediatric Entrance Examination (not more than 2 years) before the date of entry into the new academic session. Foreign doctors are allowed to enroll if they qualify for full registration with the Malaysian Medical Council as well as fulfill criteria stated above.

For more information, contact the Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya or email Ms. Barathy at barathy_10@um.edu.my

  1. UMSC Care Fund (RM 30000). Title: Vitamin D deficiency among Malaysian paediatric patients with autism
  2. CCNDP Research Grant 2018 (RM5000) - Malaysian Society of Neurosciences. Title: First parental concerns and age at the time of a diagnosis of autism. Co-investigator: Prof. Sally Ozonoff, UC Davis MIND Institute, Sacramento, USA.

Autism in Short: A Handbook for Parents. ISBN: 978-967-0311-24-1. November 2018. Gerak Budaya Enterprise, Kuala Lumpur.

RESEARCH PROJECTS (Selected 2012-2018)

  1. Principal Investigator  Universiti Malaya Learning Improvement and Teaching Enhancement Research (UM-LiTeR) 2018 Research University grant 
  2. Principal Investigator.  A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Efficacy And Safety Study Of Ataluren In Patients With  Nonsense Mutation Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy And Open-Label Extension. Funded by: PTC Therapeutics, Inc. 100 Corporate Court South Plainfield, NJ 07080 USA. Private funding.
  3. Co-Investigator. Research Title: “Mainstreaming Genetic Counselling for Genetic Testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Ovarian Cancer Patients in Malaysia – a Prospective Observational Study”  NMRR ID : NMRR-16-1322-31114. Private Funding
  4. Principal Investigator. Rare Disease Registry Program. University of Malaya Medical Centre. 2017-2019. Private Funding
  5. Principal Investigator. Metabolomic Analysis in Sick and Healthy Infants: A Novel Strategy to Personalised Medicine. UM/MoHE High Impact Research (HIR) Grant Application 2013-2015 
  6. Co-Investigator. Human gene analysis in the Spina Bifida population of Malaysia. Fundamental Research Grant Scheme 2010 (FP040/2010A), High Impact Research grant (UM.C/625/1/HIR/062), High Impact Research - Ministry of Higher Education (HIR-MOHE) (E000032-20001)
  7. Co-Investigator. Study of Uniparental Disomy (UPD) and Genomic Imprinting among Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome and Russell-Silver Syndrome in Malaysia. UMRG grant RG427/12HTM 
  8. Principal Investigator: Study of micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) patterns and messesnger RNA splicing among myotonic dystrophy (RM1) patients of different ages and clinical features. Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/10/SP/UM/01/16) 

PUBLICATIONS (Selected “Top 25” 1995-2018)

  1. Thong MK, Tan AAL, Lin HP. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hereditary elliptocytosis in a single family. Singapore Med. Journal 1997; 38(9): 388-90.
  2. Thong MK, Lim CT, Fatimah H. Undescended testes: incidence in 1002 consecutive male infants and outcome at one year of age. Paediatric Surgery International 1998; 13: 37-41.
  3. Thong MK, Rudzki Z, Hall J, Tan JAMA, Chan LL, Yap SF. A single large deletion accounts for all -globin gene mutations in twenty families in Sabah (north Borneo), Malaysia. Human Mutations 1999; 13 (5): 413.
  4. Thong MK, Thompson EM, Keenan R, Simmer K, Harbord M, Davidson G, Haan E. A child with hemimegalencephaly, hemihypertrophy, macrocephaly, cutaneous vascular malformation, psychomotor retardation and intestinal lymphangiectasia – a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical Dysmorphology 1999; 8: 283-6.
  5. Thong MK, Scherer G, Kozlowski K, Haan E, Morris L. Acampomelic campomelic dysplasia with SOX9 mutation. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000; 93: 421-5.
  6. Weaving LS, Williamson SL, Bennetts B, Davis M, Ellaway CJ, Leonard H, Thong MK, Delatycki MB, Thompson EM, Laing N and Christodoulou J. Effects of MECP2 mutation type, location and X-inactivation in modulating Rett Syndrome phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2003, 118A; 103-114
  7. Thong MK, Chan LG, Ting HS. Further delineation of Al-Gazali syndrome in a Malaysian family. Clin Dysmorphology 2005; 14. 1-5.
  8. Thong MK, Bazlin R, Wong KT. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 2005; 47: 474-477.
  9. Thong MK, Ho JJ, Noor Khatijah N. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia. Annals of Human Biology 2005; 32 (2): 180-187.
  10. Thong MK, Zabedah MY. Spectrum of Metabolic Disorders in Malaysia. Annals of Academy of Medicine, Singapore 2008; 37 (Suppl 3): 66-70
  11. Thong MK, Fietz M, Nicholls C, Lee M.H., Chow S.L., Asma O. Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation type Ia in a Malaysian family: Clinical Outcome and Description of a Novel PMM2 Mutation. J Inherited Metabolic Disorder Short Report #150 (2009) Online DOI10.1007/s10545-009-1031-1
  12. Thong MK, Boey CCM, Sheng JS, Ushikai M, Kobayashi K. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency in two Malaysian Chinese siblings: outcome at one year of life. Singapore Medical Journal 2010; 51 (1): e12.
  13. Sook-Yee Yoon, Meow-Keong Thong, Nur Aishah Mohd Taib, Cheng-Har Yip and Soo-Hwang Teo. Genetic Counseling For Patients and Families with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in a Developing Asian Country: An Observational Descriptive Study. Familial Cancer 2011 DOI 10.1007/s10689-011-9420-7
  14. Nathan AM, Thong MK, deBruyne J, Ariffin H. First study of the F508del mutation in Malaysian children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 47(8) (2011) 573–575 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2011.02149.x. Erratum in: J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Apr;48(4):370. Thong, M K [added]; deBruyne, Jessie [added]; Ariffin, Hany [added]. PMID: 21843195
  15. Juliana Mei-Har Lee and Meow-Keong Thong. Genetic Counseling Services and Development of Training Programs in Malaysia. Journal of Genetic Counselling April 2013 DOI: 10.1007/s10897-013-9589-z
  16. Yang W, Lee PP, Thong M, Ramanujam TM, Shanmugam A, Koh M, Chan K, Ying D, Wang Y, Shen JJ, Yang J, Lau YL. Compound heterozygous mutations in TTC7A cause familial multiple intestinal atresia and severe combined immunodeficiency. Clin Genet. 2015:88;542-9. doi: 10.1111/cge.12553.
  17. Jawin V, Ang HL, Omar A, Thong MK. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country. PLoS One. 2015 Sep 11;10(9):e0137580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137580. eCollection 2015
  18. Ngim CF, Lai NM, Hong JY, Tan SL, Ramadas A, Muthukumarasamy P, Thong MK. Growth hormone therapy for people with thalassaemia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012284. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012284.
  19. Kruszka P, Porras AR, Sobering AK, Ikolo FA, La Qua S, Shotelersuk V, Chung BHY, Mok GTK, Uwineza A, Mutesa L, Moresco A, Obregón MG, Sokunbi OJ, Kalu N, Joseph DJ, Ikebudu D, Ugwu CE, Okoromah CAN, Addissie YA, Pardo KL, Brough JJ, Lee N-C, Girisha KM, Patil SJ. Ng ISL, Min BCW, Jamuar SS, Tibrewal S, Wallang B, Ganesh S, Sirisena ND, Dissanayake VHW, Paththinige CS, Prabodha LBL, Richeiri-Costa A, Muthukumarasamy P, Thong M-K, Jones KL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Ekure EN, Adeyemo A, Summar M, Linguraru MG,  Muenke M. Down syndrome in diverse populations. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 2017 173A: 42-53
  20. Kathlin K. Ambrose*, Ishak Taufik, Lay H. Lian, Khean J. Goh, Kum T. Wong, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Meow-Keong Thong* Analysis of CTG repeat length variation in the DMPK gene in the general population and the molecular diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 in Malaysia. BMJ Open 2017;7: e010711
  21. Dariusz Rokicki, Magdalena Pajdowska,  Joanna Trubicka,  Meow-Keong Thong; Elzbieta Ciara, Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk; Maciej Pronicki.; Roman Sikora,  Rijad Hajdar,  Mariusz Ołtarzewski,  Ewa Jabłońska, Ms; Premala Muthukumarasamy,  Pavai Sthaneswar,  Chin-Seng Gan,  Małgorzata Krajewska-Walasek; Rosalba Carrozzo,  Daniela Verrigni; Michela Semeraro,  Cristiano Rizzo,  Roberto Taurisano,  Bader Alhaddad,  Reka Kovacs-Nagy,  Tobias B Haack,  Carlo Dionisi-Vici,  Ewa Pronicka,  Saskia B Wortmann,  3-methylglutaconic aciduria, a frequent but underrecognized finding in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency Clinica Chimica Acta 2017; 471: 95-100
  22. Kathlin K. Ambrose*, Ishak Taufik, Lay H. Lian, Khean J. Goh, Kum T. Wong, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Meow-Keong Thong Deregulation of microRNAs in blood and skeletal muscles of myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients Neurology India 2017
  23. Maddirevula S, Al-Zahrani F, Anazi S, Almureikhi M, Ben-Omran T, Abdel-Salam GMH, Hashem M, Ibrahim N, Abdulwahab FM, Meriki N, Bashiri FA, Thong MK, Muthukumarasamy P, Azwani Mazlan R, Shaheen R, Alkuraya FS. GWAS signals revisited using human knockouts. Genet Med. 2017 Jun 22. doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.78. .
  24. Kruszka P, Porras AR, Addissie YA, Moresco A, Medrano S, Mok GTK, Leung GKC, Tekendo-Ngongang C, Uwineza A, Thong MK, Muthukumarasamy P, …, Muenke M. Noonan Syndrome in Diverse Populations Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Jul 27. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38362.
  25. Thong MK, See-Toh Y, Hassan J, Ali J. Medical genetics in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region: challenges and opportunities. Genet Med. 2018 Aug 10. doi: 10.1038/s41436-018-0135-0.

Current Research and Collaborations

  1. The TO2RPIDO Study: Targeted Oxygenation in the Resuscitation of Premature Infants and Their Developmental Outcome. 
  2. Cry-Baby Application: An innovative infant cry recognition using deep neural network.
  3. Prevent Infections in Neonates – Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Programme (PIN-CUSP) Collaboration: A comprehensive safety based infection control in collaboration with Infection Control Department and Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. 
  4. Early Nutrition e-Academy for South East Asia (ENeA-SEA Collaboration) : An Erasmus+ Capacity-Building Project which provides an innovative e-learning for practicing doctors in the field of early nutrition in Southeast Asia.
  5. GPROP Study: Inter-racial Comparison of Risk Factors in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Progression in a Multi-Racial Asian Community and Identifying Predictive Values of Growth Factors in the Development of ROP.
  6. MAGNIFIC – NAPPI Study: Neonatal Magnetic Acupuncture for Painful Procedures in Infants. 
  7. TcB Study : Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Trends in Infants with High Risk Versus Low Risk of Developing Hyperbilirubinaemia.
  8. Fenofibrate for Jaundice Study : Randomised Controlled Trial using Fenofibrate in combination with Phototherapy to Reduce Neonatal Hyperbilirubinaemia.

International/ National Groups

  • Cochrane Neonatal Group – collaboration for Cochrane systematic review
  • Networks – Member of the Vermont-Oxford Network (VON) Group and the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR).

Research Funding

  1. The Neonatal Crash Cart - Resuscitation Practices in the Neonate, Oxygen Exposure, Inflammation and Its Outcomes. UMRG.
  2. Inter-racial Comparison of Risk Factors in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Progression in a Multi-Racial Asian Community and Identifying Predictive Values of Growth Factors in the Development of ROP. HIR 2012-2015. Co-Investigator.
  3. Comparison of Transcutaneous Bilirubin Trends in Infants with High Risk Versus Low Risk of Developing Hyperbilirubinaemia – A Pilot Study. Prinicipal Investigator. UM Post Graduate Fund.
  4. Neonatal Magnetic Acupuncture for Painful Procedures in Infants. UM PPP (Postgraduate Fund) PO070-2015B. 
  5. Randomised controlled trial using fenofibrate in combination with phototherapy to reduce neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia,  2015-2017, INVESTIGATOR INITIATED STUDY
  6. The TO2RPIDO Study : Targeted Oxygenation in the Resuscitation of Premature Infants and Their Developmental Outcome. International Funding 
  7. Metabolomic Analysis in Sick and Healthy Infants: A Novel Strategy to Personalised Medicine 2013-2015, High Impact Research (HIR)
  8. Evidence Synthesis to Guide Practice via Cochrane Systematic Reviewing: Measures for reducing Central Venous Catheter Related Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care 2013-2015, High Impact Research (HIR)

Selected Publications

  1. Lai NM, Ahmad Kamar A, Choo YM, Kong JY, Ngim CF. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD011891. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011891. 
  2. Li Ma, Cuiqing Liu, Irene Cheah, Kee Thai Yeo, Georgina Chambers , Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Javeed Travadi, Ju Lee Oei. Cost is the most important factor influencing active management of extremely preterm infants in China. Acta Paediatrica. First published: 06 August 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.14533 
  3. Valerie Thamrin, Ola D. Saugstad, William Tarnow-Mordi, Yueping Alex Wang, Kei Lui, Ian M. Wright, Koert De Waal, Javeed Travadi, John P. Smyth, Paul Craven, Rowena McMullan, Elisabeth Coates, Meredith Ward, Parag Mishra, Kwee Ching See, Irene G.S. Cheah, Chin Theam Lim, Yao Mun Choo, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Fook Choe Cheah, Ahmed Masoud, Ju Lee Oei. Preterm Infant Outcomes after Randomization to Initial Resuscitation with FiO2 0.21 or 1.0. J Peds Vol Issue. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.05.053 
  4. Ju Lee Oei, Ola D. Saugstad, Kei Lui, Ian M. Wright, John P. Smyth, Paul Craven, Yueping Alex Wang, Rowena McMullan, Elisabeth Coates, Meredith Ward, Parag Mishra, Koert De Waal, Javeed Travadi, Kwee Ching See, Irene G.S. Cheah, Chin Theam Lim, Yao Mun Choo, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Fook Choe Cheah, Ahmed Masoud, William Tarnow-Mordi. Targeted Oxygen in the Resuscitation of Preterm Infants - A Randomized Clinical Trial. Pediatrics Jan 2017, 139 (1) e20161452; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1452 
  5. Polly Soo Xi Yap, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Kwai Lin Thong, Yao Mun Choo, Mohd Yasim Mohd Yusof & Cindy Shuan Ju Teh. Intestinal carriage of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria in Preterm-Infants during Hospitalisation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Pathogens and Global Health. doi :10.1080/20477724.2016.1229884. 
  6. Choo YM, Ahmad Kamar A, Tengku Kamalden TAF, Looi ML, Tan K, Lai NM. Lutein and zeaxanthin for reducing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD012178. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012178. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD012178. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012178. 
  7. Lai NM, Taylor JE, Tan K, Choo YM, Ahmad Kamar A, Muhamad NA. Antimicrobial dressings for the prevention of catheter-related infections in newborn infants with central venous catheters. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD011082. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011082.pub2.  
  8. Nai Ming Lai, Jacqueline E Taylor, Kenneth Tan, Yao Mun Choo, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Nor Asiah Muhamad, Roslaili Khairudin. Antimicrobial dressings for the prevention of catheter-related infections in newborn infants with central venous catheters. Cochrane Neonatal Group. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD011082. Available at DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011082.
  9. Yao Mun Choo, Chin Theam Lim. Treatment of congenital chylothorax with octreotide in a hydropic preterm infant. Paediatrics and International Child Health 2013; 33(4); 116-119.
  10. Rukumani DV, Azanna AK, Ardita DR, Nee TS, Yusof YM, Sekaran SD, Shankar EM. 2014. Recalcitrant methicillin-sensitive coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus in an extremely low birth weight preterm infant with thrombocytopaenia. J Med Microbiol Case Rep.doi: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.004242. 

Research Interest:

  1. Preventive Cardiology in Children and Adolescent
  2. Functional assessment by speckle tracking echocardiography in iron overload patients
  3. Preoperative care in critical congenital heart disease
  4. Role of isometric exercise in patient with congenital heart defect
  5. Long term outcome in Kawasaki disease patient

Selected Publications:

  1. Bah, M. N. M., Sapian, M. H., Jamil, M. T., Alias, A. and Zahari, N. (2018) Survival and Associated Risk Factors for Mortality Among Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease in a Developing Country. Pediatric Cardiology 39 (7), 1389-1396
  2. Mat Bah, M.N., Safian, M.H., Jamil, M.T., Abdullah, N., Alias, E.Y. and Zahari, N (2018) The birth prevalence, severity, and temporal trends of congenital heart disease in the middle‐income country: A population‐based study. Congenital Heart Disease DOI: 10.1111/chd.12672
  3. Suntratonpipat, S., Khoo, N.S., Colen, T., Alhabdan, M., Troung, D., Zahari, N., Kutty, S., Smallhorn, J.F., Tham, E.B.(2017) Impaired Single Right Ventricular Function Compared to Single Left Ventricles during the Early Stages of Palliation: A Longitudinal Study.

Ongoing Research :

  1. Development of clinical predictor model in children of parent with premature coronary artery disease
  2. Rheumatic heart disease – A population hospital based study
  3. Bone health in children with congenital heart defect
  4. Evaluation of scoring system in predicting coronary artery aneurysm and ivig resistant in Kawasaki disease patient in middle-income country

Selected Publications

  • Buku ‘READY, GET SET, GROW…’- Editor: Dr Azriyanti AZ, A/P Dr Muhammad Yazid b Jalaludin. Pelancaran sudah dijalankan pada 29 Oktober 2017
  • BUKU LINA ADA DIABETES – Penulis: Dr Azriyanti AZ, Ilustrator: En Arif Rafhan, Editor: A/P Dr Muhamad Yazid J, A/P Alextander Tan.  Pelancaran buku di adakan pada bulan November dan sekarang menunggu untuk mendapatkan nombor ISBN dengan bantuan Janatan Koporat PPUM.
  • Diabetes education modul- basic. (Bahasa Malaysia dan Bahasa Inggeris). Telah digunapakai dalam pengajaran pesakit diabetes dan juga di kem diabetes. Penulis: Dr Azriyanti AZ, Pn Siti Zarina Yaakop
  • Pamphlets: Apa itu Diabetes (updated 2017) di cetak dgn kerjasama RHB Banking Group untuk digunapakai sesi lawatan pendidikan ke sekolah dan orang awam
  • M Selveindran N, Syed Zakaria SZ, Jalaludin MY, Rasat R. Quality of Life in Children with Disorders of Sex Development. Horm Res Paediatr. 2017;88(5):324-330. doi: 10.1159/000478780. Epub 2017 Sep 29. PMID: 28965114
  • Nalini M. Selveindran, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Rahmah Rasat. Behavioural Problems in Children with 46XY Disorders of Sex Development International Journal of Endocrinology. Volume 2017, Article ID 5987490, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5987490. Published 22 June 2017
  • Rahmadhani R, Zaharan NL, Mohamed Z, Moy FM, Jalaludin MY. The associations between VDR BsmI polymorphisms and risk of vitamin D deficiency, obesity and insulin resistance in adolescents residing in a tropical country. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 15;12(6):e0178695. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178695. eCollection 2017
  • Nur Ahmad Kamil Zati Iwani, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Ruziana Mona Wan Mohd Zin, Md Zain Fuziah, Janet Yeow Hua Hong, Yahya Abqariyah, Abdul Halim Mokhtar & Wan Mohamud Wan Nazaimoon. Triglyceride to HDL-C Ratio is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 40055 (2017) doi:10.1038/srep40055
  • Quah, S. W., Majid, H. A., Al-Sadat, N., Yahya, A., Sue, T. T., and Jalaludin, M. Y. (2018) Risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among 15-year-old adolescents participating in the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (MyHeARTs). Plos One 13 (7) (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200736)
  • Mohamed, K., Tin, T. S., Jalaludin, M. Y., Al-Sadat, N. and Majid, H. A. (2018) Comparative validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (MyUM Adolescent FFQ) to estimate the habitual dietary intake of adolescents in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27 (4), 898-907 (DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.022018.03)
  • Zaharan, N. L. Muhamad, N. H., Jalaludin, M. Y., Su, T. T., Mohamed, Z., Mohamed, M. N. A. & Majid, H. A. (2018) Non-Synonymous Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Physical Activity Interactions on Adiposity Parameters in Malaysian Adolescents. Frontiers in Endocrinology 9, (DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00209) 

Research grants

A. Ongoing or complete in 2018 (3)

(PI) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin

A five year, observational, non-interventional follow up to: A phase III, multicenter, double- blind, randomized, placebo and metformin controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sitagliptin in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control.

(PI) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin

A Phase III, Multicenter, Double- Blind, Randomized, Placebo- and Metformin-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Sitagliptin in Pediatric Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Inadequate Glycemic Control,

(PI) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin

A Phase III, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of MK-0431A (A Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet of Sitagliptin and Metformin) in Pediatric Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,

(PI) Associate Professor Dr Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin

Efficacy and safety of liraglutide in combination with metformin versus metformin monotherapy on glycaemic control in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes. A 26-week, doubleblind, randomised, parallel group, placebo controlled multi centre trial followed by a 26-week open label extension

International Collaborations

1. Southeast Asian Pediatric IBD Research Network

  • Nature: Prospective multi-centre, international collaborative study on clinical features and natural history of Pediatric IBD in Southeast Asia. 
  • Members: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong.

2.Pediatric IBD Network (PIBD Net) Study

  • Nature: International collaborative study funded by European Union on natural history and outcome of childhood IBD.

Selected recent publications

  1. Lee WS, Sokol RJ. Mitochondrial hepatopathies: recent advances in genetics and management. Hepatology 2007;45:1555-1565. (ISI)
  2. Lee WS, Sokol RJ. Liver disease in mitochondrial disorders. Seminars in Liver Disease 2007;27:259-273. (ISI)
  3. Lee WS, Chai PF, Lim KS, Lim LH, Looi LM, Ramanujam TM. Outcome of Biliary Atresia in Malaysia - a single centre study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2009:45:279-285. (ISI)
  4. Lee WS, Looi LM. Diagnostic usefulness of a 7-feature, 15-point scoring system in the interpretation of liver histology in neonatal cholestasis. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2009;15:5326-5333. (ISI)
  5. Chai PF, Lee WS. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Vaccine 2009;27S:F112-F115. (ISI)
  6. Chua KH, Ida Hilmi, Ng CC, Eng TL, Palaniappan S, Lee WS, Goh KL. Identification of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in Malaysian patients with Crohn Disease. Journal of Digestive Disease 2009;10:124-130. (ISI)
  7. Chai PF, Lee WS, Brown RM, McPartland JL, Foster K, Davies P, McKiernan PJ, Kelly DA. Childhood Autoimmune Liver Disease: Indications and Outcome of Liver Transplantation Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2010;50(3):295-302. (ISI)
  8. Ling-Sing Ch’ng, Lee WS, Carl D Kirkwood. Detection and characterisation of rare rotavirus G3P[9] strains in children admitted to hospital with severe diarrhoea in Malaysia during 2008 rotavirus season. Emerging Infectious Disease 2011;17:948-950. 
  9. Lee WS, Toh TH, Chai PF, Soo TL. Self-reported level of and factors influencing the compliance to desferrioxamine in multi-transfused thalassaemias. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2011;47:535-40.
  10. Chua KH, Lian LH, Kee BP, Thum CM, Lee WS, Ida H, Goh KL. Identification of DLG5 and SLC22A5 gene polyporphisms in Malaysian patients with Crohn’s disease. Journal of Digestive Diseases 2011;12:459-66.
  11. Chua KH, Hilmi I, Lian LH, Patmanathan SN, Hoe SZ, Lee WS, Goh KL. Association of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD5) and Interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) genetic polymorphisms in Malaysian patients with Crohn’s disease. Journal of Digestive Diseases 2012:9;459-65.
  12. Lee WS, Lim BTY, Chai PF, Kirkwood CD, Lee JKF. Rotavirus genotypes in Malaysia and universal rotavirus vaccination. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 2012;10:1-6. 
  13. Lian LH, Lau TP, Lee VL, Lee WS, Hilmi I, Goh KL, Chua KH. Lack of association between TYK2, STAT3 genes and Crohn’s disease in the Malaysian population. Genetics and Molecular Research 2013;12:167-74.
  14. Lee WS, Sokol RJ. Mitochondrial Hepatopathies: Advances in Genetics, Therapeutic Approaches and Outcome. Journal of Pediatrics 2013;163(4):942-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.05.036.
  15. Lee WS, Hafizah Z, Boey CCM, Chai PF. Appropriateness, Endoscopic Findings and Contributive Yield of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2013;19(47);9077-9083.
  16. Chatchatee P, Lee WS, Carrilho E, Yavuz Y, Logtens-de Graaff P, Szajewska H. Beneficial effect of growing up milk (GUM) containing scGOS/icFOS/n-3 LCPUFA on the occurence of infections in young children attending day care centres: a randomised, double-blind controlled study. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2014;58:428-437.
  17. Jayanath S, Lee WS, Chinna K, Boey CC. Depressive Symptoms in Children with Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders. Pediatrics International 2014;56(4):583-7. doi: 10.1111/ped.12335.
  18. Lee WS, Lum SH, Lim CB, Chong SZ, Khoh KM, Ng RT, Teo KM, Boey CM, Pailoor J. Characteristics and outcome of autoimmune liver disease in Asian children. Hepatology International 2015;9:292-302.
  19. Chua KH, Lian LH, Khor WC, Lee WS, Hilmi I, Goh KL, Kee BP. Association between genetic polymorphisms in interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene and Malaysian patients with Crohn's disease. Journal of Digestive Diseases 2015;16:205-216. doi: 10.1111/1751-2980.12229. 
  20. Tharani Loganathan, Way-Seah Lee, Kok-Foo Lee, Chiu-Wan Ng, Mark Jit. Effect of universal rotavirus vaccination on financial risk protection and healthcare inequities in Malaysia. PLoS One 2015 DOI:10:1371/journal.pone.0125878 (May 2015)
  21. Lee WS, RJ Sokol. Intestinal Microbiota, lipids and the pathogenesis of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Journal of Pediatrics 2015;167;519-526.
  22. Vandenplas Y, Alarcon P, Fleischer D, Hernell O, Kolacek S, Laignelet H, Lönnerdal B, Raman R, Rigo J, Salvatore S, Shamir R, Staiano A, Szajewska H, Van Goudoever J, von Berg A, Way S Lee. Partial hydrolysates as standard infant formula? A working group consensus. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2016;62:22-35.
  23. Tharani Loganathan, Chiu-Wan Ng, Way-Seah Lee, Mark Jit. The hidden health and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Malaysia: an estimation using multiple data sources. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2016;35:601-606.
  24. Underwood AP, Kaakoush NO, Sodhi N, Merif J, Lee WS, Riordan SM, Rawlinson WD, Mitchell HM. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2016;65:219-226. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000216. 
  25. Lee WS, Teo KM, Ng RT, Chong SY, Kee BP, Chua KH.. Novel mutations in SKIV2L and TTC37 genes in Malaysian paediatric patients with Trichohepatoenteric syndrome. Genes 2016;506(1):1-6.
  26. Ruey Terng Ng, Way Seah Lee, Hak Lee Ang, Kai Ming Teo, Yee I Yik, Nai Ming Lai. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children. Cochrane Systematic Review 2016 Jul 5;7:CD010873. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010873.pub2.
  27. Loganathan T, Jit M, Hutubessy R, Ng CW, Lee WS, Verguet S. Rotavirus vaccines contribute towards universal health coverage in a mixed public-private healthcare system. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2016;21:1458-1467.
  28. Lee WS, Ng RT; Chan WK; Lau YL. Variable Outcome in Infantile-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease in an Asian Cohort. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2016 Dec 28;22:10653-10662.
  29. Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Way Seah Lee, Hazel M Mitchell. Does Helicobacter pylori infection modify the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut 2017;66:235-249.
  30. Koay CL, Zahari M, Lee WS. Kayser-Fleisher ring and sunflower cataract in a child with Wilson's disease. Pediatrics and Neonatology 2017;58:97-98.
  31. Lee WS, Ahmad Z. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: a single hospital study from Malaysia. Pediatrics and Neonatology 2017;58:415-420.
  32. Lee WS, Ong SY, Foo HW, Wong SY, Chen XK, Seah RB, Ng RT. Chronic liver disease is universal in children with biliary atresia living with native liver. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2017;Nov21;23(43):7776-7784.
  33. Lee YY, Siti Asma Hassan, Intan Hakimah Ismail, Chong SY, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Lee WS, Noorizan Abdul Majid. Gut microbiota in early life and its influence on health and disease: A Position Paper by the Malaysian Working Group on Gastrointestinal Health. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2017;53:1152-1158.
  34. Lee WS, Tee CW, Koay ZL, Wong TS, Zahraq F, Foo HW, Ong SY, Wong SY, Ng  RT. Quality indicators in pediatric colonoscopy in a low-volume center: Implications for training. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2018;24(9):1013-1021.
  35. Kotlarz D, Marquardt B, Baroy T, Lee WS, Hollizeck S, Magg T, Lehle AS, Walz C, Borggrafe I, Hauck F, Bufler P, Uhlig HH, Hopfner KP, Muise AM, Snapper SB, Frengen E, Klein C. Human transforming growth factor Beta-1 deficiency. Nature Genetics 2018;50:344-348.
  36. Lee WS, Wong SY, Ong SY, Foo HW, Jalaludin MY, Ng RuT. Vitamin D non-sufficiency is prevalent in children with chronic liver disease in a tropical country. Pediatrics and Neonatology (in press)
  37. Chan KJ, Ong SY, Foo HW, Mahadeva S, Singaravel S, Lee WS. Peutz-Jegher Syndrome with endoscopic polypectomy for subacute biliary obstruction. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2017 Oct31.doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001808.
  38. Tharani Loganathan, Chiu-Wan Ng, Way-Seah Lee, Raymond Hutubessy, Stéphane Verguet, Mark Jit. Thresholds for decision-making: Informing the cost-effectiveness and affordability of rotavirus vaccines in Malaysia. Health Policy and Planning 2018;33:204-214. 
  39. Lee WS, Wong SH, D. Dunbar Ivy, Sokol RJ. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension in children: recent advances in diagnosis and management. Journal of Pediatrics 2018 Mar 5. pii: S0022-3476(17)31763-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.12.068.

The division is active in research in Paediatric Neurology and performs collaborative research both within Malaysia and internationally. The division’s research interest include improving the quality of life among children with neurological disorders, paediatric epilepsy, paediatric neuromuscular disorders, paediatric bone health and preventing the comorbidities associated with chronic neurological disorders. The division has helped refine and develop the first Malaysian IT-based epilepsy education programme (Interactive Animated Epilepsy Education Programme).

The division is a recognised national and international training site within the Asian region (accreditated by the Asian Epilepsy Academy) for Paediatric Neurology and Paediatric Epilepsy training / fellowship. We have an excellent reputation of producing high quality fellows and have attracted Paediatric Neurology fellows from Asian countries like Myanmar, Laos and Indonesia. As of 2019, 7 fellows have graduated from our unit and the graduants have continued to contribute greatly to their country as Paediatric Neurologist.

Key research papers published by the division include:

  • Fong CY, Kong AN, Noordin M, Poh BK, Ong LC, Ng CC. (2018). Determinants of low bone mineral density in children with epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol, Jan;22(1):155-163. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Fong CY, Chang WM, Kong AN, Rithauddin AM, Khoo TB, Ong LC, Ng CC. (2018). Quality of life in Malaysian children with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behaviour, 80: 15-20. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Fong CY, Lim WK, Kong AN, Lua PL, Ong LC. (2017). Provision of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) information among Malaysian parents of children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav; Oct; 75:6-12. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Tay CG, Lee VW, Ong LC, Goh KJ, Ariffin H, Fong CY. (2017). Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; Aug; 64(8). doi. 10.1002/pbc.26471. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Fong, C.Y., Tay, C.G., Ong, L.C., & Lai, N.M. (2017). Chloral hydrate as a sedating agent for neurodiagnostic procedures in children. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011786.pub2. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Lim HD, Chi C, Desudchit T, Nikanorova M, Visudtibhan A, Nabangchang C, Chan DWS, Fong CY, Chang K, Kwan S, Reyes FDL, Huang C, Likasitwattanakul S, Lee W, Yung A, Dash A. 2016. Review of clinical studies of perampanel in adolescent patients. Brain and Behaviour. 2016 June 28; 6(9): e00505. Review. (ISI/SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  • Fong CY, Kong AN, Poh BK, Mohamed AR, Khoo TB, Ng RL, Noordin M, Nadarajaw T, Ong LC. 2016. Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 57(8): 1271-1279. (ISI/SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  • Haerian BS, Sha'ari HM, Tan HJ, Fong CY, Wong SW, Ong LC, Raymond AA, Tan CT, Mohamed Z. 2015. RORA gene rs12912233 and rs880626 polymorphisms and their interaction with SCN1A rs3812718 in the risk of epilepsy: A case-control study in Malaysia. Genomics 2015 Apr;105(4):229-36. (ISI-Indexed) 
  • Fong CY, Harvey AS. Variable outcome for epilepsy after neonatal hypoglycaemia. Dev Med Child Neurol. 56(11):1093-9. (ISI/SCOPUS Indexed Publication) 
  • Fong CY, Osborne JP, Edwards SW, Hemmingway C, Hancock E, Johnson AL, Kennedy CR, Kneen R, Likeman M, Lux AL, Mordekar SR, Murugan V, Newton RW, Pike M, Quinn M, Spinty S, Vassalo G, Verity CM, Whitney A, O'Callaghan FJK. 2013. An investigation into the relationship between vigabatrin, movement disorders and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children with infantile spasms. Dev Med Child Neurol 55: 862-867. (ISI/SCOPUS Indexed Publication)

Research Grants

  • The role of RNF 213 as a susceptibility gene in the pathogenesis of moyamoya diseases and intracranial ahterosclerosis across the spectrum of ischaemic stroke patients in young adults and children in Malaysia, Co-Investigator, 2018 - 2019, UMSC Care: Private Funding, (National)
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Among Malaysian Paediatric Patients with Autism, Co-Investigator, 2018 - 2019, UMSC Care: Private Funding, (National)
  • Factors associated with treatment lag and outcome of infantile spasms in Malaysia - a multicentre prospective study, Co-Investigator, 2018 - 2019, CCNDP external research Funding, (National)
  • Empowering Parents to Manage Pain In Children With Severe Neurological Impairment Through A Mobile-based Information Technology Pain Education Programme, Co-Investigator, 2018 - 2019, International Funding, (International)
  • The acceptability and usefulness of Advance Care Plans discussion with parents of children with cerebral palsy, Principal Investigator, 2017 - 2019, (National)
  • Phase 3, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of Ataluren in patients with Nonsense mutation Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Open-label extension, Co-Investigator, 2017 - 2020, International Funding, (International)
  • Bone health evaluation in Malaysian children with spina bifida, Principal Investigator, 2016 - 2019, (National)
  • Empowering knowledge and improving Health related Quality of Life status with epilepsy educational programme for children with epilepsy and their parents, Principal Investigator, 2015 - 2018, (National)
  • Health related quality of life of Malaysian children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Principal Investigator, 2015 - 2017, (National)
  • Usefulness of Information Provision on Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) to Parents of Malaysian Children with Epilepsy, Principal Investigator, 2015 - 2016, Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) - Course & Disertation, (National)
  • Association between Vitamin D-related Gene Polymorphisms and Vitamin D Levels in Malaysian Children with Epilepsy on Antiepileptics Drugs, Principal Investigator, 2015 - 2017, Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) - Research, (National)
  • Quality of Life and Family Functioning in Malaysian Children with Epilepsy, Principal Investigator, 2014 - 2015, Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) - Course & Disertation, (National)
  • Vitamin D Deficiency in Malaysian Children with Epilepsy, Principal Investigator, 2013 - 2014, Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) - Course & Disertation, (National)
  • Association of Genetic Variation with Susceptibility to Epilepsy in The Malaysian Population, Co-Investigator, 2013 - 2016, Geran Penyelidikan Universiti Malaya (UMRG) - HTM (Wellness), (University)
  • Bone health evaluation in Malaysian children with epilepsy, Principal Investigator, 2013 - 2015, Geran Penyelidikan Universiti Malaya (UMRG) - HTM (Wellness), (University)

Research is done in collaboration with many international consortia and institutions to enable our patients access to a high standard of care. On-going collaborations include:

  • Malaysia-Singapore (MASPORE) Childhood Leukemia Studies
  • St Jude Global Neuro-Oncology Seminars
  • European Bone Marrow Transplantation Consortium ALL-SCTped2012 FORUM study
  • VIVA-Asia Bone Marrow Transplant Consortium
  • VIVA-Asia Brain and Solid Tumour Consortium

The paediatric oncology unit also has a dedicated research laboratory staffed by PhD-level scientists, a data manager, clinical trial coordinator and several technicians. Infrastructure is also in place for biobanking of tumour specimens with clinical annotation. Areas of active research include:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
  • Myelodysplasia 
  • Inborn Errors of Immunity
  • Inherited and Somatic p53 mutation including Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
  • Brain Tumours
  • Soft Tissue Sarcomas
  • HLA-haploidentical stem cell transplantation

The team’s on-going research activities in 2018/2019 are as listed below :

  • “Bereaved parents of children with a life-limiting illness: their experience on health care received” - a qualitative study in collaboration with the Department of Primary Care Medicine, University Malaya
  • “Empowering Parents To Manage Pain In Children With Severe Neurological          Impairment Through A Mobile-based Information Technology (IT) Pain Education Programme” - a collaboration with the Paediatric Neurology Unit and is funded by a grant from the International Association for the Study of Pain Developing Countries project; Initiatives for Improving Pain Education. 
  • “Children with life-limiting illnesses: symptom burden and challenges in symptom control” - a collaboration with Ministry of Health hospitals and is funded by the University Malaya Faculty Research grant


  • Lecture to Masters of Nursing Students, UM - Health Assessment: Infants, Children & Adolescents: 5/3/2018: 2.00pm - 5.00pm, FOM
  • PNU 2018 - Masterclass instructor: Interactive session - Neurology & Developmental Paediatrics - The Child with delayed development: bedside approach and current recommendations, 16/8/2018, Johor.
  • 40th MPA Congress – Invited speaker: two talks: (1) Different treatment modalities in the child with autism, Symposium 5 (Autism spectrum disorders), 6 September 2018, Ipoh, Perak. (2) Managing the child with ADHD, Meet the Expert Session 2, 7 September 2018, Ipoh, Perak.
  • Paediatric Postgraduate Course 2018 - Eating Disorders in Adolescents: 1 Nov 2018, FOM.
  • Autism & Feeding Issues Lecture: Paediatrics Track – Annual National Specialist Summit 2018/2019 – Double Tree Hilton, Malacca, Fonterra). Date: 11 November 2018.


  • Early Career Committee (ECC) Member, INSAR (Post: Global Outreach Officer): 2017 – 2019
  • ECC Rapid Research Rounds at the International Society of Autism Research (INSAR) 2018 Meeting – helped organize and participated
  • Global Representative Initiative Pilot, by the ECC – helped organise
  • Mentorship Initiative – 10th May 2018 till May 2019: paired with Prof. Sally Ozonoff, UC Davis MIND, Sacramento, USA.


  1. TWO PATIENT AWARENESS POSTERS - for the Autism awareness month (University of Malaya Specialist Centre, UMSC). Date: April 2018.
  2. TWO PATIENT AWARENESS POSTERS - for the Autism awareness month (Developmental Clinic, UMMC). Date: April 2018.
  3. ONE SLIDE PRESENTATION FOR PATIENT AWARENESS - Autism awareness month (University of Malaya Specialist Centre, UMSC). Date: April 2018.
  1. The first Genetic counselling clinic in Malaysia was started in University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 1995, at the Polyclinic E, University Hospital (then) haded by Dr Thong Meow Keong. Below is an example of a printout of clinic list of patients which received genetic counselling.
  2. The first patient with lysosomal disease in Southeast Asia was treated with enzyme replacement therapy in UMMC in mid 1990s onwards. 
  3. The Genetics and Metabolism Unit within the Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya  was invited and given the honour to witness the inauguration of the Eijkmann Institute for Molecular Biology in Indonesia on the 19th September 1995 by H.E. President of the Republic of Indonesia. 
  4. Prof Thong was a senior Fellow in Clinical Genetics in Adelaide and Melbourne, Australia. He was the first Malaysian to be board-certified as a clinical geneticist by the Human Genetics Society of Australasia in July 2000. Following his return to UM, the medical genetics curriculum for the undergraduate MBBS program in UM was revamped to reflect current trends in medical education such as using problem-based learning and role-playing in genetic counselling. Over 3000 medical graduates, nursing and biomedical students in UM had exposure to clinical genetics over the past 20 years. Annually over 1000 patients are followed up at the Genetics clinic UMMC. 
  5. Training and supervision of clinical practicum for genetic counsellor was started in 2004 in UMMC in conjunction with the Human Genetics  Society of Australasia with Malaysian graduates from University of Melbourne and University of Sydney Australia.  Currently 2 genetic counsellors have completed their studies and are board-certified genetic counsellors. Another 3 more students are currently under supervision.
  6. Professor Thong Meow Keong, the Head of the Genetics and Metabolism Unit of UMMC, was invited by the joint World Health Organization (WHO)-March of Dimes to Geneva, Switzerland on the 16th – 19th May 2006 to prepare the monograph “Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders” with other world experts and clinical geneticists
  7. The Genetics and Metabolism Unit UMMC and Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology University of Malaya  were awarded the GOLD Medal, for the invention “MyChild – A computer-aided system for the monitoring of Growth and Development in Children & Pedigree Analysis” at the I.TEX 2007 (18th International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition), Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, 18th – 20th May 2007
  8. Prof Dr Thong Meow Keong, Head of the Genetics and Metabolism Unit UMMC was awarded the Australia-Malaysia Fellowship Research Excellence 2006 by the Australia-Malaysia Institute by His Excellency Mr James Wise on the 19th December 2006 at the Residence of the Australian High Commissioner. Over the past 20 years, over 5 books and  nearly 100 peer-reviewed publications on genetic diseases and inherited conditions were published from the Genetics and Metabolism Unit. Many of these were novel condition such as Southeast Asian ovalocytosis with distal renal tubular acidosis and citrin deficiency.
  9. Prof Thong was awarded the Fulbright Scholar Award by the Fulbright Commission, US Department of State, 1st November 2003 – 31st January 2004 and was the Visiting Fulbright Scholar to the National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America. He later contributed a book chapter entitled “Birth Defects, Genetics and the Last Best Hope on Earth” In: Suseela Malakolunthu and Asma Abdullah (Editors) Fulbright Chronicles: American Experience, Malaysian Perspective.  University of Malaya Press 2010.
  10. In 2010, for the first time in UMMC history, the Genetic Medicine Unit was officially established to cover all aspects of medical genetics in UMMC. Prof Thong was appointed the head and Prof Aishah Taib from the Breast Unit, Department of Surgery was the deputy head. An associate genetic counsellor, Ms Rifhan was appointed. Other services included cancer genetics, adult genetics and reproductive genetics counselling. A genetic nurse was also allocated to the Genetic Medicine Unit with its new office located at Level 8, Paediatrics building
  11. Prof Thong, Head of the Genetics and Metabolism Unit co-authored with Ms Chin Nyok Foo the book entitled “Rare Journeys of Love” published by the Malaysian Rare Disorders Society in 2011, the first Malaysian support group for rare diseases based in UMMC where Prof Thong is the national advisor since 2004. The book is a collection of 10 extraordinary stories of patients and their families living with a rare disease. In addition a booklet entitled “What is Down syndrome?” was also published in conjunction with the Kiwanis Down syndrome Centre in Bahasa Melayu and Mandarin. These were written by Prof Thong and assisted by Ms Juliana Lee, Ms Rifhan and Dr Tan Lay Teng. 
  12. Prof Thong, Head of the Genetics and Metabolism Unit UMMC was given the honour to organize the 12th Asia-Pacific Conference of Human Genetics in Kuala Lumpur and was elected President of the Asia-Pacific Society of Human Genetics 2012-2015, an honour for UMMC as Prof Thong is the first Malaysian to hold this post. 
  13. Trainees from Master of Pathology (USM) and Master of Paediatrics (UM) are provided with regular 3-month posting and rotation at the Genetics clinic in UMMC. Over 100 postgraduate paediatric trainees have undergone rotations over the past 15 years  
  14. The expanded newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism using heel prick and dried blood spot analysis with tandem mass spectrometry was officially launched in UMMC by the Genetic Medicine Unit in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology UM and Department  of Pathology UM in 2015. This is the first public hospital in Malaysia to have this as a routine service.
  15. Dr Azlina Ahmad Annuar, lecturer of the Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine (FOM) UM and Prof Thong, of the Genetic Medicine Unit, UMMC  organized the annual “Jeans for Genes Day Malaysia” celebration on the 25th September 2016. The event  was entered in the Malaysia Book of Records for the “Longest Jeans DNA Double Helix Formation”. Prof Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Dean of FOM UM received the award on behalf of UMMC and UM.
  16. Prof Thong of the Genetics and Metabolism Unit UMMC was awarded the Fellow of the Academy of Science Malaysia (FASc) in May 2017 for his expertise and contribution to the field of genetics and genomic medicine in Malaysia over 20 years. This included teaching, research and service for patients with genetic conditions.
  17. The Genetic Medicine Unit UMMC and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) signed an agreement to jointly co-organized the annual Clinical Genetics and Genomics certificate course in UM starting from July 2017. Speaker were from UM, CUHK and Baylors College of Medicine USA.
  18. Prof Thong, Head of the Genetic Medicine Unit completed the inaugural Harvard Medical School “Southeast Asia Leadership in Healthcare” program in Boston, USA in March 2018. Prof Thong focused on “Expanded newborn screening” as the quality development project for his Capstone project.

The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of University of Malaya Medical Centre provides care for critically ill newborn infants requiring intensive as well as high dependency/special care. The NICU is equipped with 12 intensive care beds for the sickest of infants, 13 step-down and 4 rooming-in beds which allow mothers to care for their babies before baby is discharged home. Supported by neonatologists and medical officers, care in the NICU is delivered by a dedicated staff of trained neonatal nurses. The NICU team is committed to deliver good quality clinical care to ill babies by prioritising research and evidence-based medicine.


  1. Treatment and care for newborns who require Level III neonatal intensive care including high-risk infants, premature infants and congenital malformations (congenital birth defects).
  2. Intensive care support to newborns with complex medical conditions encompassing cardiac, neurology, respiratory and gastro-intestinal conditions who require further medical or surgical/neurosurgical intervention. 
  3. Provide developmental care for optimisation of growth and development of growing preterm infants and infants with congenital malformations. 
  4. Provide antenatal and postnatal counselling for high risk pregnancy and infants. 
  5. Outpatient Sevices: Provide follow-up of high-risk infants and premature infants. 
  6. Collaborative research in neonatology or related fields.

Conferences, Courses and Educational Programmes

  1. Kuala Lumpur International Neonatology Conference (KLINC) – Co-organised with the Perinatal Society of Malaysia and the Academy of Medicine Malaysia College of Paediatrics (AMMCOP).  This premier biennial neonatal conference is led by the University of Malaya neonatal team and brings the best neonatal teachers from around the world to update the region’s neonatologists and paediatricians. Its robust and diverse scientific content has attracted attendance of the region’s neonatologists in sharing ideas and research of pertinent neonatal matters. 
  2. Neonatal Resuscitation Programme. Aimed to educate health care providers on effective resuscitation of the newborn at the time of delivery. Organised bimonthly. 
  3. S.T.A.B.L.E. Programme - Neonatal education program to focus exclusively on post-resuscitation/pre-transport stabilization care of sick infants. Organised annually.
  4. PEARLS of Knowledge Seminar and Workshop for Neonatal Nurse Practitioners. Workshop series aimed to educate the neonatal nurse on clinical procedures and effective delivery of care to the sick neonate. 
  5. Neonatal Management Workshop (Bengkel Perawatan Neonat). Lectures aimed to educate the general nurse on care of the sick infant. Organised annually.


World Prematurity Day Celebration. Organised to support ex-premature graduates of the neonatal intensive care unit, this programme re-unites our preemie graduates and their families with the NICU staff.

Malaysian SuperPreemies Run. Held in conjunction with World Prematurity Day in November, this programme aims to create public awareness regarding complications of prematurity.

HUGS (Healing Unimaginable Grief with Support) Programme. This newly initiated programme supports bereavement of parents and families.

Future Plan

Genetics and Metabolism Unit

  1. The Genetics and Metabolism Unit will further expand over the next 5 years to cover genetic services for the whole of University of Malaya Medical Centre under the Genetic Medicine Unit which reports to the UMMC Deputy Director’s office. There are plans for more posts to be made available for additional 3 specialists in clinical genetics and three genetic counsellors as the clinic attendance are increasing by 10-20% annually. It is also expected more areas such as feto-maternal medicine, surgery and internal medicine will be seeing more genetic patients and many new genomic tests will be introduced
  2. There is also plan for a Centre for Personalised Medicine and Genetic Therapeutics in the future where new pharmaceuticals and medications used for genetic and metabolic conditions can be established, both for research and education purposes as well as services for patients
  3. The Genetic and Metabolism Unit will actively engage various stakeholders to improve care for patients for rare diseases, including allocations for investigations and treatment and advocating for their rights. Hence more educational and advocacy events will be organized. Genetic counselling and more clinical genomics courses will be held.

Paediatric Cardiology Unit

  • Future service: Cardiac surgery service for congenital heart defect

Paediatric Endocrinology Unit

  1. We are planning to get Hba1c finger-prick service available for our children with diabetes. The plan is to reduce unnecessary venous blood sampling to improvise quality of life in these group of children.
  2. To get more funds to help children with growth problems - Growth Hormones are relatively expansive and majority of our patients are unable to afford due to lack of funds from the government.
  3. To get involvement of a child psychologist to work with the team and provide care for children with chronic illness.
Last Updated: 10/01/2019